The colon, which is another name for the large intestine, is an important part of the digestive system.
Once or twice per day, when the body is ready for a bowel movement, the waste is dumped into the rectum. There are many diseases and conditions that are associated with the colon. Colorectal cancer is cancer that occurs in the colon or in the lower colon near the rectum. It is one of the most common causes of cancer-associated death.
The colon is comprised of four layers of tissue, similar to other regions of the digestive tract. These include: Mucosa: This is the innermost layer and is made of simple columnar epithelial tissue, making it smooth (compared to the small intestine, which contains villi, small fingerlike protrusions).