They are located below the rib cage, behind the abdomen, and under the liver. The right kidney sits a bit lower than the left one as the biggest part of the liver is on the right side of the abdomen. Most problems or infections with your kidney cause middle back pain or flank pain. However, the pain is not always felt where the kidneys are located.
The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs on either side of your spine, below your ribs and behind your belly. Each kidney is about 4 or 5 inches long, roughly the size of a large fist.
This will help you tell the difference between general back pain and pain that comes from your kidneys. Your kidneys are two organs about the size of your fist that are shaped like a bean. According to Dr. Charles Patrick Davis on MedicineNet, your kidneys are located just below your rib cage in the back of your abdomen under your liver.